Amongst the most common food allergies, CMPA is seen to affect children below 1 year of age. It often manifestsin infants within one week after the introduction of cow’s milk protein
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) contribute to developing beneficial intestinal microflora and building immunity.
About 2.5 million infant deaths occur annually worldwide. Global statistics reveal that prematurity-related complications account for 35% of neonatal deaths.
Allergy is linked with the disruption of host defense and immune tolerance in children. Numerous clinical findings highlight the beneficial effect of prebiotics (galactooligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide, GOS & FOS) on the development of gut microbiota and the immune system in infants.
Favorable Effect Of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides On Gut Microbiota
Human milk acts as a source of complete nutrition for an infant. WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months of age and to continue breastfeeding until 2 y of age and beyond with the timely introduction of complementary feeds.
What are Prebiotic Dietary Fibers? Health benefits of prebiotic dietary fibers
HMOs are essential components of human milk that have both direct communication with the immune cell, and probiotic capability. A dietary intervention supplemented with Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (9:1 [weight/weight] ) can function as prebiotic and has an immunomodulatory effect similar to HMOs.
Infants are more susceptible to develop certain infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites due to inadequately developed immune systems compared to older children and adults. This article discusses the influence of prebiotic supplementation on an infant's immune system.
Lifestyle factors such as diet, antibiotics, and exposure to the environment can modulate the composition of the gut microbiome. Gut microbiota has a profound effect on the host’s immunity and may produce a transgenerational impact on the health of the progeny. This article discusses the gut microbiota dysbiosis and the effect of prebiotics and probiotics on host health through microbiota modulation.
It is important to understand the influence of the external environment on immune and metabolic programming; diet-induced pathways are crucial in these processes that determine the development and future health. This article discusses the concept of immune fitness and immune programming that has a role in the maintenance of both, a healthy early and adult life.
Prebiotics serve as nutrient sources for beneficial microbiota in the host and have the potential to modulate host-microbial ecosystems. Most studies have focused on the indirect effects of prebiotics, which include modulating gut microflora, influencing stool characteristics, and protecting against infections. Research on the direct impact of prebiotics on the immune system is scanty. This article aims to review the mechanisms by which prebiotics may directly impact immunity and related processes.
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that selectively trigger the growth and activity of microbes in the gut that are linked with the good health of the host. Evidence suggests that they are effective in the management of various conditions such as constipation and weight gain in infants. They are also seen to improve stool characteristics in infants, which is discussed in this article.
The large intestine contains at least 30 identified genera and 500 species of microorganisms, making it the largest human reservoir of microbes.The hosts share a complex relationship with the colonizing microbes that affect the development and health of the former.However, various environmental factors influence the gut microbiota composition, which are discussed in this article.
Gut microflora has a critical role in providing immunity, improved digestion, and resistance to pathogenic infections. The gut microflora differs in composition and diversity among breast-fed and formula-fed infants. A major innovation is the modulation of the microflora through diet; a community of beneficial microbes can be obtained by adding prebiotics in infant feed. This article discusses prebiotics and their bifidogenic effect in infant's feed.
Microbial colonization in humans begins at birth and undergoes constant development until 3 years of age till the microbiota becomes adult-like. Based on the microbial colonization, the gut of an infant also undergoes crucial stages in the development from birth.
Last trimester of pregnancy is said to be the most critical phase of intrauterinegrowth. It is during this period that maximum growth changes are experienced by the fetus, with a marked increase in the functional capacity of the developing organs.
Human milk is the ideal nutritional source for all newborns. In addition to the macro- and micronutrients, it contains many distinct bioactive molecules that have shown beneficial effects on the development of gastrointestinal, immune, and brain systems.
Nutritional ingredients such as specific pre- and probiotics influence the immune system directly and indirectly via modulation of the gut microbiota. Prebiotics are non-digestible dietary carbohydrates that travel to the colon intact and can selectively stimulate the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria.
Prebiotics is a word used to describe nutritional ingredients which includes a range of non-digestible carbohydrates. They escape digestion and pass into the colon intact and act as nutrients for the commensal bacteria or probiotics that reside there, a necessary condition required for an ingredient to classify as prebiotic.