Human milk is considered as ‘gold standard’ as it is the best form of nutrition for infants. WHO and UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life with introduction of complementary food at 6 months of age and continuation of breastfeeding up to 2 years.1
Human milk composition is unique and acts as a complete source of energy, provides several nutrients which acts as bioactive components that are specifically adapted and formulated to support infant’s growth and development.2 Some of these bioactive compounds are human milk oligosaccharides, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, taurine, milk fat globule membrane, folates, polyamines, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHA & ARA), prebiotics and probiotics etc.3
What are Human Milk
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have become a topic of research due to its nutritional and health benefits for almost a century.4
HMOs are natural occurring prebiotics found in abundance in human milk.
3rd Largest solid
component In human Milk4,5
HMO content of colostrum is around 20g/L which later drops to 12-15g/L in mature human milk4.
More than 1000 different oligosacharides are present in human milk5,6, of which around 162 different structures have been characterized.7 2’-Fucosyllactose (2’-FL) is the most predominant oligosaccharide present in human milk.8
- Fucosylation HMOs
- Non-Fucosylated HMOs
- Non-Fucosylated HMOs
HMOs are classified into 3 main types namely9
- Neutral N-containing or Non-fucosylated HMOs
- Neutral or Fucosylated HMOs
- Acidic or Sialylated HMOs
Each HMO has a unique profile which varies over time & is influenced by several factors4, 10
- WHO 2000
- Greer FR. et al. Pediatrics. 2008;121(1):183-9.
- Almeida CC. et al. Int J Food Sci. 2021 May 14;2021:8850080.
- Sprenger N. et al. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2022 Apr;35(2):280-299.
- Stahl B. et al. Anal Biochem. 1994;223(2):218-26.
- Thurl S. et al. Nutr Rev. 2017:920-33.
- Urashima. et al. Glycotechnol. 2018, 30, SJ11–SJ24.
- Erney RM. et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30(2):181-92.
- Wiciński M. et al. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 20;12(1):266.
- Coppa GV. et al. Acta paediatrica. 1999;88(430):89-94.
- Zhang S. et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2021 Jul 21;20(1):140
Amongst the most common food allergies, CMPA is seen to affect children below 1 year of age. It often manifestsin infants within one week after the introduction of cow’s milk protein
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) contribute to developing beneficial intestinal microflora and building immunity.
About 2.5 million infant deaths occur annually worldwide. Global statistics reveal that prematurity-related complications account for 35% of neonatal deaths.
Nutricia Pioneering Innovation
continues to study the
effect of human milk on
THE GUT FL0RA
& the IMMUNE
SYSTEM OF INFANT'S
Influence Of Maternal And Socioeconomic Factors On Breast Milk Fatty Acid Composition In Urban, Low-income Families
Author: Nayak U, Kanungo S, Zhang D, Ross Colgate E, Carmolli MP, Dey A, Alam M, Manna B, Nandy RK, Kim DR, Paul DK.
Journal: Maternal & child nutrition. 2017 Oct;13(4):e12423
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Consumption And Concentration Among South Indian Women During Pregnancy
Author: Dwarkanath P, Muthayya S, Thomas T, Vaz M, Parikh P, Mehra R, Kurpad AV.
Journal: Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition.
IMMUNITY & MORE
Test your Knowledge
1. What according to you, affects the infant gut microbiota the most?