Energy & Protein
- Indian Epidemiological data shows chronic energy deficiency (CED) in mother-child dyad resulting in higher LBW/SGA babies.
- Too early, too close, too many and too late pregnancies adversely affects mother-child nutrition and health status.
- Balanced energy-protein supplementation (<25% calories from protein) is found beneficial in improving infant birth weight. (Ota et al, 2012)
- Iron deficiency anemia is the most common micro nutrient deficiency with 50% to 90% prevalence among pregnant women. There seems to be large variations among different states in India (Chakravarty, 2002).
- Nutritional anemia contributes to about 24% of maternal deaths every year and is one of the important causes of low birth weight (Dietary Guidelines for Indians, 2010).
Folate & B12
- Prevalence of folate and B12 deficiency has not been well documented. A study of mothers and offspring of middle-class urban communities in and around Pune City showed that 62% of pregnant women had low B12 levels, and that it was associated with low B12 levels at 2 years in their offspring (Bhate et al 2012).
- Insufficiency of vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy can adversely affect brain development of the child (Muthayya et al, 2006).
- Vitamin D deficiency is also emerging as common nutritional deficiency. Although India is a country with abundant sunshine, about 84% of pregnant women (urban and rural) have significant hypovitaminosis D3. (Sachan A et al, 2005).
- Widely prevalent vitamin D deficiency is functionally relevant to skeletal health including osteomalacia and rickets. Nutritional deficiency in women is often increased during pregnancy because of the additional nutrient requirements of fetal growth.