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Gestational Diabetes Symptoms & Constipation Remedies

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GDM (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.”8 Pregnancy results in many changes in the body function and may affect the way the body controls blood glucose levels. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that interfere with the action of insulin.In a normal pregnancy, a woman's pancreas compensates for this by making additional insulin. If the body is not able to meet the increased demand for insulin during pregnancy, blood glucose levels rise resulting in GDM . There is an exceptionally high estimated prevalence of GDM (27.5%) in India2.

Presently, according to the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group of India( DIPSI) guidelines (2006) the target for glucose maintenance in GDM is at around 90 mg/dl in the fasting state, and around 120 mg/dl at 2 hours after starting the meal7.All national and international guidelines suggest dietary management as the initial mainstay for the management of GDM.


Medical Nutrition Therapy(MNT)

Medical nutrition therapy for GDM has been defined as a “carbohydrate-controlled meal plan that promotes adequate nutrition with appropriate weight gain, normoglycemia, and the absence of ketosis.”1

Goals of MNT in GDM : 

  • To achieve normoglycemia.
  • To provide adequate weight gain, and add to the fetal wellbeing.
  • To prevent ketosis


Energy: Women with GDM who are at ideal body weight (IBW) (0.8–1.2 times of their IBW) during pregnancy, the caloric requirement is 30 kcal/kg/day? for those who are overweight (1.2–1.5 times of their IBW), it is 24 kcal/kg/day? and for obese women (more than 1.5 times of their IBW), the caloric requirement is 12–15 kcal/kg/day of the present pregnant weight1. ADA Clinical Practice Recommendations have suggested a 30–33% calorie restriction for obese women with GDM, while advising a minimum 1800 calorie level4. For those women who are underweight (less than 0.8 of their IBW), the caloric requirementmay be up to 40 kcal/kg/day to achieve recommended weight gain.The days calorie requirement would normally range from 1800-2400 kcal1.

Macronutrient distribution1


Carbohydrate 50% to 55%
Protein 20% to 25%
Fat 25% - 30%


Calorie and carbohydrate intake needs to be distributed across meals and snacks to blunt postprandial hyperglycemia, because it is the postprandial hyperglycemia that correlates with adverse pregnancy outcomes in GDM1. Research has shown that distribution of calories especially the breakfast helps to achieve the glycemic targets3. This implies splitting the usual breakfast into two equal halves and consuming the portions with a two hour gap in between. By this the undue peak inplasma glucose levels after ingestion of the total quantityof breakfast at one time is avoided. GDM mothers have deficiency in first phase insulin secretion and to match this insulin deficiency the challenge of quantity of food at one time should also be less.A meal plan for women with GDM typically includes three small to moderate sized major meals and three snacks1.A bowl of curd, Paneer tikka / Grilled paneer / Boiled egg/Soya Nuts / Roasted chana / Chana chaat / Sprouts with veggies can be a few good snack options which are low in carbohydrate and will provide good quality protein.


Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates have the greatest impact on the blood glucose levels and hence total recommended carbohydrates are 50 % of total calorie intake daily1. Postprandial blood glucose concentrations are directly dependent upon the carbohydrate content of the meal or snack.The quantity, quality and distribution of carbohydrate throughout the day affects blood glucose control. Carbohydrate counting is a useful tool in managing women with GDM. Choosing the right type and amount of carbohydrate is very important in maintaining glucose levels in the target range. Distribute meal pattern into meals & snacks as per individual preferences and 6 meal plan. Complex carbohydrates which are low GI like vegetables, whole fruits (apple, orange, pears, peach) , whole pulses & sprouts- kidney beans, black eyed beans, soyabeans, whole moong, whole cereal grains –whole wheat, brown rice, barley, buckwheat, oats, pasta, made from durum wheat should be preferred over high GI foods like polished rice, bread, pasta, maida and its products, cornflakes, baked potato, sugary foods etc.


Fiber: Including fiber in the diet aids in improving satiety, preventing constipation which is commonly observed in pregnancy and stabilizing blood glucose levels. The recommended intake is 25-30g fiber /day1.Inclusion of whole fruits, vegetables (salads and unstrained soups), sprouts in daily diet can help to achieve adequate fiber intake. Special focus should be on insoluble fibre like whole grain, cereals and other vegetables which not only provided satiety, but slows down absorption time and lowers glycemic index.


Protein: Protein requirements increase in pregnancy (20% of total calories)1as they are the building materials of body responsible for growth, maintenance and energy. Proteins flatten the glycemic response of the food i.ethey reduce glycemic index of food and hence help to control post prandial glucose spike.Protein intake with every meal is therefore recommended.


Good sources of low fat protein foods are lean meat, fish, eggs, sprouts, low fat milk, yoghurt and defatted soya. Combination of cereals and pulses (eg dal khichdi) helps in supplementing all the essential amino acids and increasing the biological value of the protein.


Fat: 30% of the total calories are recommended from fat sources1.Consumption of oil, ghee, butter all included should be limited to 0.5kg/month/person. A blend of two or more vegetable oils should be used in daily cooking.

Diet should be low on saturated fats (<7%)1. Intake of biscuits, chips, cakes, pastries, processed fried, samosas, wadas, high fat Indian sweets and takeaway foods should be strictly avoided as they are a source of trans fat. Inclusion of omega 3 fatty acid rich foods such as Soyabean, Canola/Rapeseed and mustard oils, walnuts, chia seeds,fish like mackerel, sardines, tuna and salmon should be encouraged for the fetal brain development.


Other nutrients:

  • Calcium requirements increase in pregnancy. Calcium rich foods such as low fat cow’s milk ,curd and paneer, cheese, fish, green leafy veg , til, nachni , rajgirashould be included in the diet .
  • Increased iron requirements can be met by including iron rich sources like bajra,nachni, rajma, green leafy vegetables with lime, egg with a citrus fruit like orange or sweet lime to enhance the iron absorption.
  • Probiotics: Numerous studies show that probiotics can reduce the incidence of GDM. Probiotic use in pregnancy could significantly reduce maternal fasting glucose levels.Probiotic food supplements are available from many sources but effectiveness is dependent on various factors like temperature, anaerobic storage conditions, the initial dose of the strain and its quality6.

Light and moderate intensity activities such as walking for 20–30 min/day can be safely encouraged; modest improvements in glycemic control might be achieved.


For other micronutrient requirements, superfoods and dietary guidelines in GDM, kindly refer to article on pregnancy.


  1. Magon N, Padmanabhan S, Seshiah V(2014) Medical Nutrition Therapy inGestational Diabetes Mellitus in Contemporary Topics in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Edition: 1, Chapter: 8, Publisher: Jaypee pp.56-66.
  2. Guariguata L, Linnenkamp U, Beagley J, Whiting DR, Cho NH.Global estimates of the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy.Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2014 Feb; 103(2):176-85.
  3. Seshiah V, Das AK, Balaji V, Joshi SR, Parikh MN, Gupta S; Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group. Gestational diabetes mellitus – guidelines. J Assoc Physicians India 2006;54:622-8
  4. American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes (Position Statement) Diabetes Care. 2000;23(Suppl 1):S77–9.
  5. Metzger BE, Coustan DR. The organizing committee: Summary and recommendations of the Fourth International Workshop- Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Suppl 2):161–7.
  6. Lindsay KL, Walsh CA, Brennan L, McAuliffe FM. Probiotics in pregnancy and maternal outcomes: a systematic review. J MaternFetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26:772–778.
  7. Seshiah V, Das AK, Balaji V, Joshi SR, Parikh MN, Gupta S. Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group. Gestational diabetes mellitus - Guidelines. J Assoc Physicians India 2006;54:622-8


This article is contributed by Nurture Health Solutions

PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome)

PCOS is a set of symptoms that result from a hormonal imbalance affecting women and girls of childbearing age. Women with PCOS usually have at least two of the following three conditions:

  • Absence of ovulation, leading to irregular menstrual periods or no periods at all.
  • High levels of androgens (a type of hormone) or signs of high androgens, such as having excess body or facial hair.
  • Cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on one or both ovaries—"polycystic" literally means "having many cysts"1.

According to a study by Nidhi R et al (2011), the prevalence of PCOS, in Indian adolescents is 9.13%3.


Pathophysiology of PCOS :

  • Clinical signs of PCOS include elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) levels, whereas follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are muted or unchanged. As a result of the increase in GnRH, stimulation of the ovarian thecal cells, in turn, produces more androgens. Follicular arrest can be corrected by elevating endogenous FSH levels or by providing exogenous FSH.1
  • The clinical presentation of PCOS varies widely. Women with PCOS often seek care for menstrual disturbances, clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism, and infertility. Menstrual disturbances commonly observed in PCOS include oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and prolonged erratic menstrual bleeding. 2




Energy: Energy requirement depends upon weight, activity and 24-hour recall calories of an individual. Short periods of calorie restriction lead to decrease in androgen & this is sufficient for some patients to restore normal menstruation. Modest ?5% weight loss helps in improving insulin sensitivity & reducing cardio-vascular risk. A deficit of 500kcal/day is needed for an average person to lose 0.5kg/week. An overweight sedentary individual suffering from PCOS requires 20-25kcal/kg PBW (present body weight) while moderately active individual needs 25-30kcal/kg PBW. 4,5


Carbohydrates: 50 – 60% of the total calories should come from carbohydrates. Reducing Glycaemic load can help to control post-prandial glucose levels and resulting hyperinsulinemia levels. Low GI, high fibre, whole grains should be consumed because insulin resistance is manifested in PCOS and so there are chances of high blood sugar. Refined carbohydrates & sugars should be consumed in limited quantity because it leads to weight gain thereby affecting insulin resistance. Phytonutrients found in whole grains, beans, nuts, fruits & vegetables helps in improving insulin resistance. 4,5

Good sources: Whole Grains, legumes, pulses, vegetables and fruits


Protein: 10-15% of the total calories should come from protein. Good quality protein like animal products (lean portions of meat, egg & fish), whey protein should form a major part of one’s protein intake. Adequate protein intake gives satiety and improves insulin sensitivity. 4,5 


Fat: 20- 25% of the total calories should come from fat. Good quality fat should be included like monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fats like butter, ghee etc. should be around<7% of the total calories. Avoid trans-fats like vanaspati. Fat should be consumed in restricted amounts as it can worsen the insulin resistance which is already present in PCOS. 4,5


Omega 3 supplementation of 3g/day helps to reduce serum concentrations of testosterone and regulate menstrual cycle.6 Omega-3 fatty acids have significant cardio metabolic syndrome protective effects. 

Good sources of omega 3 fatty acids: Fatty fish like mackerel, salmon, tuna, fish oils, flaxseeds, flaxseed oil, canola oil, walnuts and chia seeds 


Other nutrients:


D-chiro-inositol: A relative of common inositol (a B vitamin), is found in small concentrations in the human body and in some foods. It is a compound that has been reported to affect the action of insulin & decrease serum free testosterone concentration.11 Myo-inositol, 2 grams/day, significantly reduces LH/FSH ratio, FSH, prolactin, androstenedione, testosterone, insulin. 14,15

Good Sources: Fresh fruits and vegetables, beans, grains, and nuts. 


Vitamin D: Deficiency appears to occur frequently in women with PCOS and may be a contributing factor to some of the biochemical abnormalities seen in this condition. Vitamin D intake improves glucose tolerance, that may be the mechanism for producing benefits in PCOS. A reasonable dosage is 800 to 1,200 IU per day for several months is recommended.16

Natural sources include exposure to sunlight. Also, foods fortified with Vitamin D are available in the market and can be considered. Supplementation works best to increase vitamin D levels.


Chromium (Cr): It is an essential trace mineral and required by the human body for normal carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. The possible mechanism of action of chromium is, it is involved in the activation of PI3 (phosphoinositide -3) kinase expression and in Akt (Protein kinase B) phosphorylation and stimulates GLUT– 4 translocations, leading to increased insulin sensitivity. The dosage recommended in the studies are 200 mcg of Cr per day.17

Good Sources: Lentils, whole wheat, chicken, brewer’s yeast.


Antioxidants: Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS, in addition to known risk factors such as insulin resistance, hypertension, central obesity, and dyslipidemia. According to Fenkci V et al (2003), total antioxidant status (TAOS) was significantly lower in women with PCOS.18

Good Sources: Fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, spices and herbs.


Zinc: helps to controls Appetite, Thyroid Hormone

Good Sources: Spinach, Pumpkin Seeds, Oats, Sunflower Seeds

Iodine:  Regulates Androgen Release

Good Sources: Cheese, Cow’s Milk, Eggs, Soy Milk, Iodized Table Salt

Magnesium: Maintains Normal Glucose Metabolism

Good Sources: Sesame Seeds, Wheat Bran, Almonds, Cashews




  1. Quinoa: - Quinoa contains about 1.9% of 20-hydroxyecdysone, the main phytoecdysteroid found in plants. 20-hydroxyecdysone decreases epididymal adipose tissue, reduces lipid storage capacity in the adipose tissue. Extract from seeds of quinoa decreases food intake, fat deposition, body weight and thereby improves insulin sensitivity. (7).
  2. Fenugreek seeds: - It is found that fenugreek seeds contain phyto-chemicals, saponins which may have an effect on the production of sex hormones and may help the body maintain normal testosterone levels. Fenugreek increases the number of insulin receptors in red blood cells and improve glucose utilization in peripheral tissues, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in PCOS. (8)
  3. Soy: - Soy phytoestrogens are structurally similar to endogenous estrogen and have affinity to estrogen receptors. Many studies showed that the consumption of soy phytoestrogens have favourable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, thus having beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, obesity, diabetes and hyper-lipidemia which are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.There are various types of phytoestrogens such as isoflavones, prenylated flavonoids, and coumestans. The isoflavone content in soy has lipid lowering effect. It provides favourable benefit of reducing LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular events in PCOS individuals. It helps in reducing testosterone, luteinizing hormone, triglycerides and dehydroepiandrostronesulfate. So, soy phytoestrogen has possible advantages in patients with PCOS and is favourable in reducing its complications. 9,10
  4. Cinnamon :- Cinnamon and components of cinnamon have been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, glucose, lipids, antioxidants, inflammation, blood pressure, and body weight.20 Cinnamon supplementation also improves menstrual regularity and may be an effective treatment option for some women with PCOS. 21


Dietary guidelines:


  • A nutritionally balanced meal is advised including all major food groups.
  • Small frequent meals should be taken as that helps in appropriate distribution of the calories throughout the day.
  • Whole grains, bran, sprouts should be included in the diet. Avoid refined food like maida& its products like bread, biscuits and simple carbohydrates like sugar, honey, jaggeryas they are high in empty calories which can lead to weight gain and insulin resistance.
  • Plenty of colourful fruits & vegetables, green leafy vegetables should be included in the diet as they provide essential vitamins, minerals and fibre required for normal metabolism of the body.
  • Avoid carbonated beverages, pickles, ketchups, canned foods, ready to eat packets because they are high in sodium.
  • Fried food stuffs, outside food should be completely avoided because they increase overall fat consumption.
  • Sufficient quantity water should be consumed which helps in removing toxins and prevents weight gain.
  • 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week is recommended. There has to be a gradual increase in the level and time of physical activity in order to lose weight. This helps in increasing metabolism of the body thereby reducing deposition of fat. (19)
  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). (2009). Oxford Handbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 288-300. doi:10.1093/med/9780198567394.003.0054.
  2. Ndefo, U. A., Eaton, A., & Green, M. R. (2013). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Review of Treatment Options With a Focus on Pharmacological Approaches.
  3. Nidhi, R., Padmalatha, V., Nagarathna, R. et al (2011).Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Indian Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 24(4), 223-227. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2011.03.002
  4. Farshchi, H., Rane, A., Love, A., & Kennedy, R. L. (2007). Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Pointers for nutritional management. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 27(8), 762-773. doi:10.1080/01443610701667338
  5. Nutrition Guidelines in PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Retrieved from
  6. Sadeghi, A., Djafarian, K., Mohammadi, H., &Shab-Bidar, S. (2016). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2016.06.025
  7. E, G., & Da, D. (2016). Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), from Nutritional Value to Potential Health Benefits: An Integrative Review. J Nutr Food Sci Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, 06(03). doi:10.4172/2155-9600.1000497
  8. A. M., G. Deori. (2013). Medicinal Values of Fenugreek – A Review. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences
  9. Khani, B., &Mehrabian, F. (2011). Effect of soy phytoestrogen on metabolic and hormonal disturbance of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Res Med Sci;16(3):297-302
  10. Current Press Releases. Retrieved from
  11. Myo-Inositol in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. (2012).Retrieved from
  12. Mahan, L. K., Escott-Stump, S., Raymond, J. L., & Krause, M. V. (2012). Krause's food & the nutrition care process. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders.
  13. Zimmermann, M., &Burgerstein, L. (2001). Burgerstein's handbook of nutrition: Micronutrients in the prevention and therapy of disease. Stuttgart: Thieme.
  14. Myo-Inositol. (2004). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Genetics, Genomics and Proteomics. doi:10.1002/0471684228.egp08257
  15. Genazzani, A. D., Lanzoni, C., Ricchieri, F., &Jasonni, V. M. (2008). Myo-inositol administration positively affects hyperinsulinemia and hormonal parameters in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecological Endocrinology, 24(3), 139-144. doi:10.1080/0951359080189323.  
  16. Moran, L., Brinkworth, G., & Norman, R. (2008). Dietary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 26(1), 085-092. doi:10.1055/s-2007-992928
  17. Jamilian, M., Bahmani, F., Siavashani, M. A., Mazloomi, M., Asemi, Z., &Esmaillzadeh, A. (2015). The Effects of Chromium Supplementation on Endocrine Profiles, Biomarkers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Biological Trace Element Research Biol Trace Elem Res, 172(1), 72-78. doi:10.1007/s12011-015-0570-6
  18. Fenkci, V., Fenkci, S., Yilmazer, M., &Serteser, M. (2003). Decreased total antioxidant status and increased oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Fertility and Sterility, 80(1), 123-127. doi:10.1016/s0015-0282(03)00571-5
  19. WHO | Physical Activity and Adults. Retrieved from
  20. Qin, B., Panickar, K. S., & Anderson, R. A. (2010). Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology,4(3), 685-693. doi:10.1177/193229681000400324Kort, D. H., & Lobo, R. A. (2015). 
  21. Preliminary Evidence that Cinnamon Improves Menstrual Cyclicity in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Obstetrical &Gynecological Survey, 70(2), 94-95. doi:10.1097/01.ogx.0000461902.16853.84.


This article is contributed by Nurture Health Solutions


People whose BMI is <18kg/m² are considered as underweight. The causes could be reduced food intake, diseases like tuberculosis, diabetes, malabsorption syndrome or cancer, psychological factors (anorexia nervosa), behavioural factors (people who are nervous, tense, active), pathological conditions like fevers, GI disturbances where the digestion and absorption capacity is reduced or hyperthyroidism1.


MNT in Underweight


Any underlying cause of underweight must be dealt with as a first priority. A wasting disease or malabsorption requires treatment. Activity should be modified, and psychological counselling should be started if necessary. Nutrition and dietary changes are effective along with treatment for the underlying cause of underweight or if the cause of being underweight is merely inappropriate or inadequate food intake.


Energy:- The calorie requirement varies depending upon activity. For increasing weight the total caloric intake should be in excess of the energy requirement. There has to be a gradual increase in energy from 30-35 kcal/ kg ideal bodyweight initially to 35-45 kcal/ kg ideal bodyweight without causing any digestive disturbances. Stepping up the calorie intake by 500kcal per day is recommended. Adequate energy can be obtained by increasing the quantity and frequency of the meals. In addition to larger meals, snacks are usually necessary to adequately increase the energy intake1,4.


Carbohydrate:- 55-63% of the total energy should come from carbohydrates. High carbohydrate sources must form the basis of the diet. Complex carbohydrates like whole grain cereals, millets, pulses, fruits and vegetables must be a part of every meal. Refined carbohydrates like sugary foods, refined flour should not be consumed in excess since high amount of sugar increases fat content in the body even for underweight individuals. Soups and salads should be avoided with the meal, because they contain fibre and water content which contributes to early satiety1,3.


Protein:- 1-1.2g/kg body weight is recommended for tissue building depending on the activity level. Protein can constitute 12-15 % of total calorie intake. Good quality protein like eggs, milk & its products, lean meat, fish and whey protein should constitute fifty percent of the total protein. In the process of weight gain in an underweight individual this good quality protein facilitates muscle building (muscle gain) rather than increase in fat mass (fat gain).


Fat:-30% of the total calories should come from fat with the majority from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat sources. Nuts can be included in the diet since they are calorie dense with good quality fats. Excessive consumption of fried and fatty foods is not recommended as it increases the overall body fat content. Target for a weight gain individual should be more of muscle gain rather than fat gain (visceral and subcutaneous region) which can lead to metabolic disorders1.


Vitamins & Minerals:-Vitamins & minerals should be given according to the RDA. Vitamins & minerals play an important role in various metabolic reactions in the body. As the intake is less, diet can be made nutrient dense by incorporating vitamin & mineral rich foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains and pulses, nuts and oilseeds3.




  1. Nuts:- Nuts which include walnuts, almonds, pistachios, cashewnuts make a  very good mid meal snack for individuals who are underweight as they are calorie dense foods rich in unsaturated fatty acids, high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds2.
  2. Banana:-Consuming 2-3 bananas daily or having a glass of banana milkshake as a  midmeal snack is beneficial for healthy weight gain. In addition to being tasty and easily affordable fruit ,banana is a calorie rich fruit with essential nutrients like magnesium, potassium, vitamin B6, and fibre5.
  3. Eggs:-Eggs are an excellent source of high biological value proteins required for muscle building which is the aim for weight gain. Egg yolk is a rich source of readily absorbable and usable iron which is an important nutrient, as most underweight individuals are also anaemic. Eggs provide other important nutrients like choline, biotin, vitamin B12 and vitamin A. Eggs should be combined with carbohydrate sources like chapatti in form of egg roll as a breakfast option or snack to ensure good protein-carbohydrate combination which helps to increase weight.


Dietary guidelines:

  • Diet should comprise of three major meals and about 3-4 in between snacks to ensure a continuous nutrient and calorie intake. Meals should be energy dense.
  • Caloric dense fruits like banana, chikoo, seetaphal, mango, grapes & dried fruits like fig, raisin, dates etc. can be included.
  • Sugar sweetened products, high amounts of jaggery, honey is not recommended because they are source of  empty calories which increases fat deposition.
  • Nuts like almond, walnut, pistachios, groundnuts etc provide good quality fats and are calorie dense and so should be included in the daily diet . Nuts could also be powdered and added to milk to make an energy dense midmeal snack option.
  • Emphasis should be on eggs, milk& its products, lean meat, fish and whey protein because they are the source of good quality protein which helps in muscle building.
  • Fluid should not be provided before or during a meal to avoid early satiety.
  • Synthetic drinks, soft drinks, alcohol, aerated drinks, too much tea & coffee are high in sugar, sodium, caffeine. They reduce appetite and hence, should be avoided.
  • Intake of fried food stuffs and outside food should be limited.
  • Regular outdoor exercises are important because it helps in stimulating appetite. Resistance training can help in building muscle.
  1. B. Srilakshmi (7th Eds.) (2009) Dietetics; New Age International Publisher.
  2. Ros E. (2010) Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients 2, 652–682 .
  3. Retrieved from
  4. Mahan, L. Kathleen., Escott-Stump, Sylvia., Raymond, Janice L.Krause, Marie V. (12th Eds.) (2012) Krause's food & the nutrition care process /St. Louis, Mo. : Elsevier/Saunders.
  5. Retrieved from


This article is contributed by Nurture Health Solutions